Πέμπτη, 29 Οκτωβρίου 2020

80 χρόνια απο το ¨Ενδοξο και Αθάνατο ΟΧΙ του 1940!!!! ΖΗΤΩ η Ελλάδα!!! ZΗΤΩ το Έθνος!!!



Όλα γνωστά...αλλά για να ΜΗΝ ξεχνάμε: 

Η λέξη ηρωισμός φοβάμαι ότι δεν αποδίδει στο ελάχιστο τις πράξεις αυτοθυσίας των Ελλήνων, οι οποίες ήταν ο καθοριστικός παράγοντας για τη νικηφόρα έκβαση της κοινής προσπάθειας των εθνών, κατά τη διάρκεια του Β’ Παγκοσμίου Πολέμου, για την ανθρώπινη ελευθερία και την αξιοπρέπεια. Εάν δεν ήταν η ανδρεία των Ελλήνων και το θάρρος τους, η έκβαση του Β’ Παγκοσμίου Πολέμου θα ήταν ακαθόριστη.
Winston Churchill
Μέχρι τώρα συνηθίζαμε να λέμε ότι οι Έλληνες πολεμούν σαν ήρωες. Τώρα θα λέμε ότι οι ήρωες πολεμούν σαν Έλληνες.
Winston Churchill


Χάριν της ιστορικής αλήθειας πρέπει να επιβεβαιώσω ότι μόνο οι Έλληνες, απ’ όλους τους αντιπάλους που μας αντιμετώπισαν, πολέμησαν με το μεγαλύτερο θάρρος και περισσότερο αψήφισαν το θάνατο.
Adolf Hitler


Όταν νικήσουμε, θα μπούμε στη Βουλγαρία ως τιμωροί, στη Γιουγκοσλαβια ως ελευθερωτές και στην Ελλάδα ως προσκυνητές ..
Stalin


Εάν οι Ρώσοι κατόρθωσαν να προβάλλουν αντίσταση στην είσοδο της Μόσχας για να σταματήσουν και να αποτρέψουν το γερμανικό χείμαρρο, το οφείλουν στους Έλληνες, οι οποίοι καθυστέρησαν τις γερμανικές μεραρχίες, την ώρα που θα μπορούσαν να μας κάνουν να γονατίσουμε.
Στρατηγός Zukov (Σοβιετική Ένωση)



Η Μάχη της Πίνδου άλλαξε τον ρου της Ιστορίας
Στρατηγός Smuts (πρόεδρος Νοτιοαφρικανικής Ένωσης)


Πολεμήσατε άοπλοι εναντίον πανόπλων και νικήσατε. Μικροί εναντίον μεγάλων και επικρατήσατε. Δεν ήταν δυνατόν να γίνει αλλιώς διότι είστε Έλληνες. Κερδίσαμε χρόνο για να αμυνθούμε. Ως Ρώσοι και ως άνθρωποι θα σας ευγνωμονούμε.
Ραδιοφωνικός Σταθμός Μόσχας


Είμαι ανίκανος να δώσω το κατάλληλο εύρος της ευγνωμοσύνης που αισθάνομαι για την ηρωική αντίσταση του λαού και των ηγετών της Ελλάδας.
Charles de Gaul


“Η χώρα μας, στην οποία τιμάται ιδιαίτερα η ανδρεία, παρακολουθεί με θαυμασμό τον αγώνα των ΕΛΛΗΝΩΝ στην Αλβανία και μας συγκινεί τόσο, ώστε, παραμερίζοντας κάθε άλλο αίσθημα αναφωνούμε `ΖΗΤΩ Η ΕΛΛΑΔΑ’”.
Ιαπωνική εφημερίδα, Δεκέμβριος 1940





The heroic attitude and the huge contribution of the Greeks to the victory against the forces of the axis, as reflected in the statements of enemies and friends.




Σοφία Βέμπο: Παιδιά,της Ελλάδος παιδιά...


https://youtu.be/l8JzuSXs0GU


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Σοφία Βέμπο: Βάζει ο Ντούτσε τη στολή του
https://youtu.be/ANWaw5ThQII

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Σοφία Βέμπο: Το τραγούδι της λευτεριάς


https://youtu.be/egb7BXTvkco

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Νίκος Γούναρης: Κορόϊδο Μουσολίνι


https://youtu.be/hvYp3yLX0wo





Φωτογραφικὸ ἀφιέρωμα στὸ 1940
























































The following was reproduced in 2014:



Leland Stowe, who won a Pulitzer Prize in 1930, died on January 16 , 1994 in Ann Arbor, Mich. He was 94











“Oxi" Day
"A lesson from the Greeks"
By LELAND STOWE






Editor's note: October 28 is Oxi Day, marking the 74th anniversary of Greece's rejection of Italian dictator Mussolini's ultimatum to allow Italy's Fascist forces to occupy "strategic loca­tions" inside Greece or face war. Greece's dicta­tor loannis Metaxas answered in one word: oxi (ohi) -no. American correspondent Leland Stowe cov­ered the Greek campaign of 1940-1941 for the Chicago Daily News and later wrote a book about it called, "No Other Road to Freedom." A portion of that book is reproduced here:


.....Long afterward people asked me repeatedly how the Greeks defeated the Fascist army. Although it may seem premature to mention it here, I think this is as good a place as any to offer my own explanation.

On this first trip, from one end of the Greek-Albanian front to the other and covering some two hundred and fifty miles from the island of Corfu up to Lake Ochrida far to the north, we saw all that anyone needed to know about what lay behind the Greek victories. By the end of December, and in two short months, the Greeks had battered Mussolini's troops to the very verge of a final knockout blow, and only the ruthless bitterness of winter and the formidable Albanian mountains saved them from being driven into the Adriatic Sea.

But even in early December the Greek soldiers had proved what they so often asserted, that one Greek soldier was worth five or ten Fascist sol­diers. But howand why did the little Greek army drive the Italians back and backward, scoring one astonishing triumph after another?
On the basis of my own experiences and obser­vations I would list six reasons, in the order of their relative importance:

1. The fighting hearts of the entire Greek people.


2. The extraordinary unity of the Greek people.


3. The remarkably high caliber of the Greek general staff; combined with the fact that virtually all officers, from the rank of lieutenant-colonel upward, were
fighting in their fourth war.


4. The startling inefficiency of the Italian gen­eral staff and the extremely poor direction of the Italian air force.


5. Pronounced lack of combative spirit and an understandable lack of conviction (even respect for what they were commanded to do) on the part
of the Fascist soldiers.


6. The highly important aid given by the British air force and British naval units where the Greeks most needed help.

I am certain that all six of these reasons were definite factors in the Greeks’ military successes, but without the first three the Greek miracles could never have happened. In this respect the fighting spirit and the extraordinary unity of the Greek people were by all odds the most signifi­cant. The Greeks knew they would fight, whether they had a chance or not. The little, sloppily uni­formed Greek soldier never entertained the shad­ow of a doubt about his combative superiority to one or a dozen Italians.

The Greek people, utterly disregarding the long and bitter feud which had divided them between partisans of the Metaxas dictatorship and the republicans whom Metaxas had over­thrown, completely buried all party animosities and formed a solid phalanx as Greeks.

We spent our first day at the front with General Lavranos and Captain Alex Melas. The captain had been a deputy, a republican deputy, in the parliament which Metaxas dissolved, and until the war came he had been an exile from the Metaxas regime.

"I am a lifelong republican," Captain Melas told us. "I tell you frankly I am only here because, first of all, I am a Greek. Two months ago I would never have spoken to the general here. Isn't that so, General?"

General Lavranos was an army man of the old school. "Yes, that's quite true," he said. "The captain and I have been political enemies for years. But all that does not matter any more. Nothing matters except to defeat the Fascists. We Greeks are no longer republicans and Metaxans. We are all Greeks. That's why Mussolini can never defeat us."

On New Year's Eve Premier Metaxas told me exactly the same thing. I had asked him if it had not been difficult for him to decide that Greece would fight. "No, it was not difficult," he replied. "I knew the Greek people, that was all. I knew that any Greek, man or woman and no mat­ter of what rank in society, how rich or how hum­ble -I knew that any Greek in my position would have done exactly what I was doing. You have seen the Greek army and the Greek people. Is it not true?"

Yes, it was true; unanimously, inspiringly, magnificently true. That is the glory that is Greece. And that, I believe, is the great and enduring lesson from the Greeks for all human beings who desire to remain free through and beyond the twentieth century's world revolution. Will the American people understand this? Look in your heart and you shall see one vital figment of the ultimate answer.”












ΤΙΜΕ- Dec. 16, 1940 - The Balkan Theatre - October 28, 1940








Attached is TIME Magazine's article from it's Dec. 16, 1940 issue titled BALKAN THEATRE: Surprise No. 6. Above is the issue's cover featuring General Alexandros Papagos, Commander of the Greeks.


The article describes the events of the first Italian offensive which commenced in the early dawn hours of 28 October, 1940. A second Italian offensive followed in December 1940, which was crushed by a Greek counteroffensive.


Below are some excerpts from the attached article:


The Greeks poured on. Pushing northward to Porto Edda, they crossed the marshes above aLake Butrinto which the Italians had thought were impassable. They waded armpit-deep through icy water, pushing their guns on rafts. They crawled over the mountains from the east, cut the road to Delvino and planted their guns on the heights above Porto Edda.


...Fifteen miles over the hills, the Greeks had taken all the heights surrounding Argirocastro. There the Italians also fired the town and fled up the road toward Tepeleni-harassed by snipers and artillery from the hills above. Before the Italian rear guard of tanks retired, the Greek infantry stormed the town. They dropped from balconies on to the roofs of tanks, threw hand grenades into the openings, jammed the tank-tread mechanisms with their bayonets.


...In Athens people danced in the street by moonlight, carrying at the head of their procession the victory flag that had been flown on the Parthenon...The Greeks rejoiced and the world was stunned.


...War is always full of surprises...The first surprise of World War II was the German conquest of Poland in 27 days...The second was the swift German conquest of Norway...The third was the German sweep through the Low Countries and France...Even before the third surprise was complete, the fourth surprise had taken place. A British Army of 400,000 men, all but surrounded in Flanders, succeeded in effecting its escape by sea from Dunkirk...The fifth surprise took place no one knew exactly when-when Hitler found his forces unable to undertake a direct assault last summer on Britain herself...But none of these surprises was greater than Surprise No. 6: the ability of ill-armed Greeks to fight off and defeat the well-armed and more numerous Italians.


...But it was the combined, concentrated brains of Metaxas and Papagos which evolved the mountain strategy and tactics now bearing such startling fruit. Last week Norwegian mountain troops journeyed from Great Britain to get in on the Greek show, and the Swiss applied for permission to come and take notes.


...But the fact remains that Italy threw into the fight, at the outset, ten full divisions numbering, with supply and labor troops, over 200,000 men, to which two more divisions were added after the going got rough. These included many celeri (mobile) units. At the Pindus passes the invaders were confronted by not more than eight divisions out of the 13, plus one of cavalry, which Greece could mobilize but of which she could equip only ten for fighting. Not even numbers of airplanes made much difference, for Italian planes outnumbered the Greeks (even after the British based squadrons at Larissa, Athens) by at least 500 to 100, new planes versus old. And in artillery the Fascist advantage was estimated at 919 guns to less than 100.



Thermopylae in Reverse. 2,420 years ago, 1,400 Spartans, Thebans and Thespians, occupying a narrow mountain pass above the sea, were surprised from the rear by a large Persian detachment clambering around through the hills. Spartan King Leonidas and his men fought stubbornly for several hours, but all (except the Thebans, who surrendered) were annihilated. The Spartans at Thermopylae were great heroes but they lost the battle.


General Papagos' tactics of 1940 are basically the Persian tactics at Thermopylae and his troops too have repeatedly taken the long, hard way around through the mountains to attack the Italians from behind and above.


With their mechanized equipment, their heavier and more numerous artillery and their larger number of troops, the Italians naturally stuck to the roads, and the roads run through the valleys and the passes. General Papagos made use of the mountains by moving along the heights to outflank the Italians. His infantry, composed of mountaineers - all Greece is mountainous - knew exactly how to get through hills. Everything fitted.


Even the Greek shortage of artillery, particularly heavy guns, was turned to advantage. They dragged their light mountain pieces over rough trails and got into position where they could drop shells on Italians who could not see them. The effectiveness of these tactics was immense.


...Only of simple equipment - rifles, hand grenades, bayonets - did the Greeks have reasonably adequate supplies, and of these they made the best. Military experts agree that the bayonet and hand-to-hand fighting are out-of-date in modern war, but the Greeks found use for them. Advancing through the mountains, they repeatedly stormed small positions held by Italian detachments who had been sent out to safeguard the flanks of columns on the roads below.Time and again, Greek bayonet and grenade proved conclusive.


...The Italian peasant is not accustomed to a life of luxury, but Greek mountaineers live on even less. They ordinarily subsist on a little cheese, a few olives, goat's milk, a swallow of resinous wine, black bread and a few leeks. To them the hardship of mountain campaigning, far from field kitchens and services of supply, is hardly more than an inconvenience. The evzones or elite guards (who wear khaki kilts in battle, not their white dress fustanella and red pomponned slippers) are chosen for stature, and of them there are five regiments. The rest of the troops are wiry little men, averaging less than 5 ft. 5 in. Observers marveled at their endurance on long night marches up blizzardy mountains, through slushy defiles; their sleeping on cold rocks or in frozen ditches; their unfailing grins and cheery chatter before, during and after battles. In every way the poverty of Greece had given it strength and the Greek Command knew how to capitalize upon it.












Της τα έδωσα της Πατρίδος και τα δύο



Ήμουν στο Ναυτικό το 1952 και βρισκόμουνα στη Πλατεία Κλαυθμώνος, όχι όπως είναι σήμερα. Οι νεότεροι δεν γνωρίζουν πάρα πολλά από τα παλιά και απορούν οπόταν ακούν ορισμένα γεγονότα του τότε. Εκείνη τη στιγμή έπεφτε ο ήλιος και θα γνωρίζετε ότι με τη δύση του, γίνεται υποστολή της σημαίας. Τότε το Υπουργείο Ναυτικού ήταν εκεί και η σημαία κυμάτιζε ακόμα στο κτήριο. Σήμερα είναι άλλες υπηρεσίες του Ναυτικού.
Τότε πάντα κάθε πρωί, θα θυμούνται οι παλιοί, γινόταν έπαρση σημαίας και σταματούσαν τα πάντα, όπως και στη δύση του ηλίου γινόταν υποστολή. Ήταν στιγμές ωραίες , απίθανες που ζούσαν τότε οι άνθρωποι. Το άγημα αποδόσεως τίμων στο χώρο του, και ακούμε το σαλπιγκτή να δίνει το σύνθημα για την υποστολή της σημαίας. Το άγημα παρουσιάζει όπλα. Ο αξιωματικός χαιρετά και παίζεται ο Θούριος. ¨Ολοι οι παριστάμενοι εκεί και οι περαστικοί, όπως και εγώ σταθήκαμε σε στάση προσοχής. Αποδίδεις με αυτό τον τρόπο την τιμή στο ιερό μας σύμβολο, στη γαλανόλευκη σημαία. Τη στιγμή που ο αρμόδιος αξιωματικός χαιρετά, η ματιά του πέφτει λοξά και βλέπει κάτι παράξενο, και η ψυχή του ταράζεται, μ' αυτό που θα σας πω παρακάτω. Τελειώνοντας η διαδικασία της υποστολής της σημαίας, οι διαβάτες συνεχίζουν τον δρόμο τους, ενώ εγώ από παρέμεινα από συνήθεια λίγο ακόμα. Τότε βλέπω τον νεαρό αξιωματικό να κατευθύνεται θυμωμένος πρός έναν γεροδεμένο πλανόδιο καστανά. Βλέπετε τότε η πλατεία ήταν κενή και στις γωνίες ήταν πάντα στιλβωτές ( λούστροι ) και καστανάδες, που μας λείπουν τώρα. Και του είπε : "γιατί δεν σηκώθηκες όρθιος για να τιμήσεις τη σημαία μας. Δεν έχεις φιλότιμο κλπ". Ο άνθρωπος έμεινε βουβός, ενώ εγώ παρακολούθησα έντρομος και φοβερά συγκλονισμένος το τι έγινε. Μετά βλέπω τον καστανά ότι έγινε κατακόκκινος και ότι άρχισε να τρέμει. Ήθελε να φωνάξει, αλλά τον είδα με έκπληξη να συγκρατείται, σκύβοντας το κεφάλι του και να αρχίσει να κλαίει με λυγμούς. Όμως συνήλθε γρήγορα, σκούπισε τα δάκρυά του και με τη δύναμη των χεριών του ( που ήταν γερά) στύλωσε το σώμα του δυνατά, έσπρωξε τον πάγκο με τα κάστανα μπροστά και φώναξε με όλη την ψυχη του στον νεαρό αξιωματικό δυνατά "πώς να σηκωθώ κύριε; Της τα έδωσα της Πατρίδας μου και τα δύο". Και σηκώνοντας τα μπατζάκια του παντελονιού, φάνηκαν δύο πόδια, κομμένα πάνω από το γόνατα. Και ξανάρχισε να κλαίει. Ο κόσμος όπως και εγώ γύρω του έκλαιγε και χειροκροτούσε, όμως περισσότερο απο όλους έκλαιγε ο νεαρός αξιωματικός.
Έχουν περάσει περίπου 60 χρόνια. Ποιος ξέρει τι να γίνεται. Εκείνη τη στιγμή πάντως έγινε κάτι το αλησμόνητο, μια φοβερή σκηνή. Ο αξιωματικός σκύβει και αγκαλιάζει και φιλά τον καστανά, και στη συνέχεια στέκεται ευθυτενής μπροστά στον ήρωα, φέρνει το δεξί χέρι στην άκρη του γείσου του πηλίκιού του και τον χαιρετά στρατιωτικά. Του απονέμει "τας κεκανονισμένας τιμάς" που δεν μπόρεσε εκείνος τυπικά να αποδώσει στη σημαία μας, γιατί της χάρισε τα δύο πόδια του στα βορειοηπειρώτικα βουνά μας, για να μπορεί να κυματίζει σήμερα ψηλά η κυανόλευκη σημαία μας, σε λεύτερη πατρίδα. Και οι άλλοι, οι πολλοί να μπορούν να πηγαίνουν με γρήγορο βήμα στην ειρηνική απασχόλησή τους, χωρίς να γνωρίζουν ότι περνούν μπροστά από έναν ήρωα του αλβανικού μετώπου, τον Έλληνα ήρωα πολεμιστή, όποιο επάγγελμα και να 'χει. Άλλοι δεν μιλούν, άλλοι όμως ειρωνεύονται.Γι αυτό οι νέες γενιές πρέπει να μάθουν, να διδαχθούν από την οικογένεια και από το Σχολείο για το Έπος του 1940.
Για το καλό της Πατρίδας μας.




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